Standardized: coriander (fruit), cilantro (leaf)
Other: Chinese parsley, yuan sui zi
Coriandrum sativum L.1
Plant Family: Apiaceae
Coriander is a spice that has been used in the Mediterranean and Asia for thousands of years and is now widely cultivated and available in the West. Traditionally, it was used to support healthy digestion and was often added to beans or other hard to digest dishes due to its carminative qualities. Further, it is well known as a flavoring for liquor, beers, and various soups, sauces, and meats.
Coriander is a hardy annual native to the Mediterranean and Asia with compound lower leaves that are somewhat round and lobed, yet have finely divided, lacy upper leaves.3,5 These leaves, called ‘cilantro,’ are abundant in most supermarkets. The small white umbelliferous flowers typify the Apiaceae or Carrot family.3,5 All parts of the plant are used, yet the most common are the leaves (cilantro) and fruits, or seeds, which are referred to as ‘coriander’.5,6 This name is in reference to the Greek word ‘koris’, meaning bug, as it is thought that its unripe fruit smells similar to bedbugs.3,6
CULTIVATION AND HARVESTING
Annual global production of coriander fruit is estimated at about 600,000 tons. The main producers of coriander are the Ukraine, Russia, India, Morocco, Argentina, Canada, Mexico, and Romania.3,7 Main importers are the USA, Sri Lanka, and Japan. India is a main cultivator and yet also a major consumer of coriander, thus almost all the production stays in the country for domestic consumption. It is a similar situation in Pakistan.3,7 Canadian grown coriander is exported primarily to the United States, and then secondarily to Sri Lanka, Trinidad and Tobago, the United Kingdom, Mexico and Guatemala.3
HISTORY AND FOLKLORE
First mentioned in Sanskrit texts in India seven thousand years ago, coriander is truly an ancient spice.5 The seed was found in Egyptian tombs and also discovered in Bronze Age ruins (ca 3200–600 BCE) on the Aegean Islands. The ancient Greek and Roman physicians Hippocrates, Paracelsus, Dioscorides, and the naturalist Pliny the Elder were all quite familiar with this medicinal spice.8 In fact Pliny suggested that the best coriander of his time was from Egypt.6The ancients employed coriander as a meat preservative amongst many other things.8 In China it was utilized for medicinal and culinary purposes for thousands of years as well.5 Often the root was cooked as a vegetable.3
Used as a culinary spice in India, coriander is a main ingredient in Indian curry powder alongside spices such as turmeric, fenugreek, cumin, and chili.6 In some of the northern parts of Europe and in Russia, coriander is used to flavor alcoholic liquors, in particular, gin.3,6 Belgian-style white beer is often brewed with coriander and orange peel which gives it the characteristic spicy citrus flavor.9 Further, the sweet citrusy and musty aroma of the ripe seeds have been used to flavor sausages, pickles, candies, sauces and soups, medicinal elixirs, and have also been distilled into essential oil.3 In particular, it is used in elixirs containing harsh purgatives or laxatives such as senna to mask the flavor and to moderate its propensity to cause intense cramping.5,6 Much of the traditional medicinal uses for coriander center around its carminative, stomachic, and antispasmodic activities as it has been employed to support digestion and to stimulate appetite in a variety of cultures and countries for thousands of years.2,3,4,6,10 A variety of sources suggest coriander’s properties as a relaxing nervine as well, and in Maud Grieve’s words in her book the Modern Herbal “If used too freely the seeds become narcotic.”6
In Ayurvedic medicine (traditional healing system of India) coriander is often combined with caraway and cardamom seeds for use as a digestive tonic.4 It is considered to be a remedy that brings balance to all of the constitutional body types, effecting the digestive, urinary, nervous, and respiratory systems. It is energetically cooling and has a sweet, bitter and pungent taste.10 Similarly, in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), coriander is considered pungent in taste and is associated with the Lung and Stomach meridians. It is used as a digestive tonic as well and as a flavoring to improve the taste of herbal preparations just as it has been in herbal medicine practices in the West.13
Magically, coriander is imbued with the powers of love, health, and healing. It was used in love spells, and added to warm wine to create and aphrodisiac elixir. Pregnant women were encouraged to eat the seed as it is believed that it would make her offspring highly intelligent.14
FLAVOR NOTES AND ENERGETICS
Bitter, pungent, sweet, energetically cooling2,10
Carminative,4,5,10,12 pectoral, and sedative,10,11,12 diuretic, stomachic, spasmolytic,4 alterative, stimulant,2 aromatic, stomachic, antispasmodic.15
USES AND PREPARATIONS
Dried, ripe spherical fruit (seed) whole or powdered as a spice, tea, or flavoring for liquor.
Fresh ripe fruit distilled into an essential oil
Specific: No known precautions.
General: We recommend that you consult with a qualified healthcare practitioner before using herbal products, particularly if you are pregnant, nursing, or on any medications.